"2-Komponenten-Bauweise – Struktur und Zufall", Strukturalismus

Partizipation, Doppelband mit "Die Träger" von John Habraken, 2000

"Aldo van Eyck – Architekt einer humanen und poetischen

Baukunst", Artikel auf Seite 4-7, SIA 7-1999

Einleitung, Buchbearbeitung und Herausgabe von Arnulf Lüchinger,

Texte Bauten+Projekte und Nachwort von Herman Hertzberger, 1987

"Dokumente der modernen Architektur", Band 14

Karl Krämer Verlag Stuttgart, 1980

"Strukturalismus – Eine neue Strömung in der Architektur",

Bearbeitung der ganzen Ausgabe von Seite 5-40, B+W 1-1976

"Strukturalismus als Architekturströmung erkannt und international

lanciert durch Arnulf Lüchinger seit 1974," (Francis Strauven)

"Papiermaschine PM1 – Ein Industriedenkmal"

in Bischofszell, Artikel auf Seite 4-12, SIA 25-1997

"Two Houses in St. Gallenkappel", in special issue "Contemporary

Houses of the World", article pp. 147, 150, 167-170, A+U 2-1979

Arnulf Lüchinger
Structuralism Publications
Structuralism History

Books and Articles on Structuralism in Architecture and Urban
Planning by Arnulf Luchinger [Languages: G, E, D or G+E+F]

I    Structuralism / Strukturalismus / Structuralisme

Structuralist Architecture, version 2009.01.08. Article on
website www.essential-architecture.com. Reaction against
New Objectivity and Rationalism.
Structuralism, version 2018.03.15, and other themes on
Archinform and Wikipedia: English German Dutch

Structuralism in Architecture and Urban Planning -
Developments in the Netherlands - Introduction of the Term
in book: Tomas Valena (ed.) with Tom Avermaete and
Georg Vrachliotis, Structuralism Reloaded - Rule-Based
Design in Architecture and Urbanism
, pp. 87-95 by Arnulf
Luchinger, Stuttgart-London 2011.
Cover: Projects by Piet Blom, Giancarlo de Carlo et al.

Buch 2-Komponenten-Bauweise - Struktur und Zufall, in
Kombination mit Die Träger und die Menschen von N. John
Habraken, Doppelausgabe, 112 S., 90 Abb., kart., Arch-Edition
Den Haag, 2000. Demokratisierung im Wohnungsbau.
Architektur als Halbprodukt für die Partizipation der Bewohner.
Integration von professioneller und alltäglicher Baukultur.
Pluralistische Architektur. Teilaspekt des Strukturalismus.
Umschlag: Le Corbusier, Projekt "Fort l'Empereur" Algier, 1932.

Aldo van Eyck - Architekt einer humanen und poetischen
, in Schweizer Ingenieur und Architekt, Nr. 7/1999,
Seite 4-7, Zürich.
Umschlag: Aldo und Hannie van Eyck, Estec Noordwijk, 1989.

Aldo van Eyck, in M. Emanuel [ed.] Contemporary Architects
, St. James Press London and Detroit, 1994. Addition to
essays on Piet Blom, N. John Habraken, Herman Hertzberger
and Mart Stam.

Wat Cobra voor schilderkunst betekende werd Structuralisme
voor bouwkunst
, in Cobouw, 18.12.1992, Den Haag. Esthetica
van het aantal, identiteit en participatie.

Het Nederlands Structuralisme, in syllabus De invloed van
constructies in de architectuur
, pagina 49-57, TU Delft 1987.
Twee componenten bouwwijze.

Buch Herman Hertzberger 1959-86, Bauten und Projekte /
Buildings and Projects / Bâtiments et projets
. 3-sprachig
G+E+F, 384 Seiten, 1100 Abbildungen teilweise in Farbe,
Leinenausgabe. Arch-Edition Den Haag, 1987.
[Gold Medal Award for architectural books and magazines,
World Biennale of Architecture 1987]
Umschlag: Herman Hertzberger, Lindenstrasse Berlin, 1986.

Piet Blom - Clown Amongst Architects, in Architecture and
no. 11/1985, pp. 47-54, Tokyo. Article in special
issue on Piet Blom.

Buch Strukturalismus in Architektur und Städtebau /
Structuralism in Architecture and Urban Planning /
Structuralisme en architecture et urbanisme,

3-sprachig G+E+F, 144 S., 450 Abbildungen, gebundene
Ausgabe. Dokumente der modernen Architektur, Band 14.
Karl Krämer Verlag Stuttgart, 1980. Mit verschiedenen
Originaltexten der Hauptvertreter.
Umschlag: Paul Klee, „Architektur aus Variationen", 1927.

Piet Blom, N. John Habraken, Herman Hertzberger, Mart Stam.
Essays in M. Emanuel [ed.] Contemporary Architects I, The
Macmillan Press London, 1980.

Dutch Structuralism, in Architecture and Urbanism, no. 3/1977,
pp. 47-66, Tokyo. Article in special issue on Herman Herzberger.

Strukturalismus - Eine neue Strömung in der Architektur /
Structuralism - A new trend in architecture / Structuralisme -
Un nouveau courant dans l'architecture
. Teilweise 3-sprachig
G+E+F, in Bauen+Wohnen, Nr. 1/1976, Zürich und München. Bearbeitung der ganzen Ausgabe von Seite 5-40. Zitate Kenzo
Tange Seite 7-8 und Herman Hertzberger Seite 21-24.
Umschlag: Piet Blom, „Wohnbäume" in Helmond, 1975.

Strukturalismus - Symbol der Demokratisierung
, in Bauen+
n, Nr. 5/1974, Seite 209-212, Zürich und München.
Erster Artikel mit dem Titel Strukturalismus in einer Architektur- zeitschrift über die Architektur von Herman Hertzberger: Rathausprojekte Valkenswaard 1966 und Amsterdam 1967, Bürogebäude Centraal Beheer Apeldoorn 1972.
"Der niederländische Strukturalismus als Architekturströmung wurde erkannt und international lanciert durch den Schweizer Architekten Arnulf Lüchinger seit 1974," (Francis Strauven in
Video Vimeo 2014, Studium Generale, 04:40).
Titelseite des Artikels: Rathausprojekt Valkenswaard 1966.

II    Weitere Artikel [Auswahl]

PM1 - Ein Industriedenkmal, in Schweizer Ingenieur und
, Nr. 25/1997, Seiten 4-12, Zürich. Industriekultur vom
17. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert in Hauptwil-Bischofszell. 40m
lange Papiermaschine in Bischofszell, geliefert durch die Firma
Voith in Heidenheim.
Umschlag: Papiermaschine PM1 in Bischofszell, 1928.

Gekonnter Umgang mit dem Material Holz, in Schweizer
, Nr. 3/1997, Seite 8-11, Zürich. Sporthalle
Niederhelfenschwil der Architekten Kuster und Kuster, St. Gallen.

Grenzüberschreitende Architekturszene im Bodenseeraum und
, in Schweizer Ingenieur und Architekt, Nr. 47/1996,
Seite 23-24, Zürich. Vorarlberger Bauschule, Peter Zumthor,
Beat Consoni, Hubert Bischoff u.a.

Wiederaufbau eines Wahrzeichens der Bodenseestadt Arbon,
in Architektur & Wirtschaft, Nr. 27/1996, Seite 152-154,

Houses in St. Gallenkappel, by A. Luchinger. In Architecture and Urbanism, no. 2/1979, pp. 147, 150, 167-170, Tokyo.
In Bauen+Wohnen, Nr. 12/1977, pp. 459-460, Zurich-Munich.
Cover: Contemporary Houses of the World, A+U 2/1979.

Die Schule von Amsterdam [Amsterdamer Schule], in
Bauen+Wohnen, Nr. 9/1975, Seite 357-360, Zürich und München. Niederländischer Expressionismus [Amsterdamse
School, engl. Amsterdam School] von ca. 1915-1930.

Witkar, in Bauen+Wohnen, Nr. 7/1974, Seite 267, Zürich und
München. Neues öffentliches Verkehrsmittel. Weisse
Elektroautos für zwei Personen mit Ladestations. Vorschlag der
Provos in Amsterdam.



Structuralism in Architecture and Urban Planning / Strukturalismus in Architektur
und Städtebau / Structuralisme en architecture et urbanisme /
Structuralisme in architectuur en stedenbouw.

Statements and other texts by the protagonists of the architectural movement.
Jacob Bakema / In 1957 Bakema, together with members of a re-organisation
committee, called for the alteration of the name CIAM: Congrès international
d'architecture moderne (Ciam)
to CIAM: Groupe de recherches des interrelations
sociales et plastiques (Team Ten).
The original French notion "Working group for the
investigation of interrelationships between social and built structures" is probably
coming from Le Corbusier. / Building houses for anonymous employers (in special
issue on Split, Forum 2-1962) /
Piet Blom / I'm the fool in the game. I'm not against the game itself. / The urge to
overthrow existing structures was strengthened in me by the Provo's (in Amsterdam
mid-1960s). Hundreds, thousands of people went out in the streets to demand that
everything must change, become more playful. / I have an aversion towards the
word housing, because it is associated with the idea of a roof over one's head. But
housing also includes the neighbours, the street, furnishings and the atmosphere of
a district. / Towns should be inhabited in a village-like manner. 1959 /
Georges Candilis / Habitat for the largest section of the population / Up to now the
house is built down to the smallest detail and man is pressed into this dwelling – in
spirit the same from Scotland to Ghana – and adapts himself as best he may to the
life that the architect furnishes him with. We must prepare the "habitat" only to the
point at which man can take over. We aim to provide a framework in which man can
again be master of his home. 1955 / The street as a corridor disappeared with the
Charter of Athens. Today it is the spatial corridor which has to go (the green-lined
space between the functionalistic blocks). 1956 /
Herman Hertzberger / Structuralism deals with the difference of a structure with a
long life-cycle and infills with shorter life-cycles. / Polyvalent form and individual
interpretations. 1962 / Structure and infill. Participation of the user. Reciprocity of
form. / It is not an outward form wrapped around the object that matters to us, but
form in the sense of unbuilt capacity and a potential vehicle of significance. Form
can be filled in with significance, but can also be deprived of it again, depending
on the use of it. / However far the designer goes, the occupants put the finishing
touches to a building and take possession of it. They interpret the building in their
own way, and the more diverse the ways for completion, the more people will feel at
home in it. / What we need to draw on is the great "Musée Imaginaire" of images,
wherein the process of change of signification is displayed as an effort of human
imagination, always finding a way to break through the established order to find a
more appropriate solution for the given situation. 1973 / Every solution at a
different place or time is an interpretation of the archetypical; both general and
specific, like the individual application of a formula. 1967 /
Louis Kahn /
In order to come to terms with the nature of architectural form Kahn
uses expressions such as "inspiration" and "belief" in form: I really felt very
religiously attached to this idea of belief, because I realized that many things are
done only with the reality of the means employed, with no belief behind it. You
don't know what the building is, really, unless you have a belief behind the building,
a belief in its identity and in the way of life of man. /
Charles Jencks comments:
"Kahn starts with a conclusion and works back towards a beginning. It is the exact
reverse of the process which Gropius and others had preached of washing one's mind
of all preconception and starting from scratch with a clean slate. What Kahn starts
with and tries to achieve is a preconception, a preform. By keeping the form (or
preform) archaic, he always keeps his belief in it." / Louis Kahn often worked with
the principle of "servant" and "served" spaces (auxiliary and main rooms). /
Lucien Kroll / Le visage pluraliste (pluralistic architecture) / Client centered therapy
/ We are looking for a way to create a built environment, which expresses the
wishes of the "small voices". I don't pretend in any way to be a "social worker". I'm
seeking, often in some desperation, a form of landscape, which is compatible with
the popular culture (landscapes which are diametrically opposed to the apparently
inevitable authoritarian milieus). We want not simply to decolonise the residents,
but primarily to prove that such co-operation between cultures which respect each
another is possible. The outcome of such groups will always be closer to the
complexity of reality than all the simplifications which we are tempted to impose
"for the sake of brevity". /

Le Corbusier / I was labelled a revolutionary, whereas my greatest teacher was the
Past. My so-called revolutionary ideas are straight out of the history of architecture
itself. /
One of the earliest Structuralist projects is the Student City , where aspects
as coherence, articulation, growth and extension are integrated: The university city
is presented here as a "shed"-system in a form of construction that allows an
extension of the overall complex to infinity. 1925 /
The project "Fort l'Empereur"
shows principles as change, participation of the inhabitants, integration of high
culture and low culture, structure and coincidence, 2-components-approach, plan
libre and pluralistic architecture: Here, you see, are the artificial building sites, the
elevated garden cities. The architectural aspect is wonderful: a truly moving picture!
Maximum diversity within unity. If one wants it, every architect can build his own
villa; and it makes no difference to the whole, if Moorish stands cheek by jowl with
Louis XVI or Italian Renaissance styles. 1932 (Quotation in La ville radieuse) /
Alison and Peter Smithson / Patterns of Association / We are of the opinion that we
should construct a hierarchy of human association (house, street, district, city)
which should replace the functional hierarchy of the Charte d'Athènes. 1953 / At all
levels of the community identifying devices are necessary, but at the city scale, the
community cannot be made comprehensible without something particular to city.
1956 / Feeling that you are somebody living somewhere / Architect-urbanist /
Urban structuring / Change and growth / Sense of place / The philosophy of the
doorstep / Mobility / Identity / Cluster / Core /
Kenzo Tange / It was, I believe, around 1959 or in the beginning of the Sixties,
that I started to think about what I was later to call Structuralism.
(Quotation in
Plan 2-1982, Amsterdam) / In his article Function, Structure and Symbol, 1966
Tange writes: There are problems which are impossible to solve with the functional
approach alone. In addition to the functional aspect we need a process of
"structuring", a process that links the functional units. We come to believe that
developing the process of "structuring" is the basic theme of urban design. A high-
order traffic system gave structure to the entire civic axis of our Tokyo Plan. /
Kultermann comments: "The development from 1920 to 1960 is subsumed by Tange
under the designation of functionalism. The period since 1960, on the other hand,
he regards as belonging to what can be called structurism." 1970 /
Aldo van Eyck / Statement against Rationalism. 1947 / Imagination versus common
sense / Transparency of time / The unchanging conditions of man in the light of
change / We can discover ourselves everywhere, in all places and ages, doing the
same things in a different way, feeling the same differently, reacting differently to
the same. To discover anew implies discovering something new. / Transformation of
archaic principles into present-day architecture. / I think it is disquieting,
historically, that modern urbanism should have been created in the only avantgarde
movement that has proved to be irrelevant. / Whatever space and time mean, place
and occasion mean more. / The city as "interior" of the community. 1959 / For half
a century architects have been providing "outside" for man, even inside. But that is
not their job at all: their job is to provide "inside" for man, even outside. / We shall
have to extend our aesthetic sensibility: uncover the still hidden laws of what I
have called Harmony in Motion, the Aesthetics of Number. / Quantity cannot be
humanized without sensitive articulation of number. / Decentring of the subject /
Amsterdam orphanage: A "house" must be like a "small city" if it's to be a real home;
a "city" like a "large house" if it's to be a real city. In fact, what is large without
being small has no more real size than what is small without being large. If there is
no real size, there will be no human size. The building was conceived as a
configuration of intermediary places clearly defined, an articulation between spaces,
between outside and inside, between one space and another. 1960 /

John Habraken / Supports - An alternative to mass housing. 1961 / There is an
architecture of uniformity and one that creates form in variety. In the latter case
we are concerned with the principle of „support structure and infill package”. In such a
case it is possible for a façade form to be so powerful that anything can happen
within it without the overall impression being chaotic from the outside. One will see
it as a lively variety. / Het alledaagse (Everyday things). 1967 /
Wim van Bodegraven / We are faced with the necessity of evolving structures and
forms, which can develop in time, which can remain a unity and maintain the
coherence of the components at all stages of their growth. The absence of this must
lead to selfdestruction. 1952
(Quotation in Forum 7-1959) /

Languages: G=German, E=English, F=French, D=Dutch